Selections from the Utterances of Bahá’u’lláh and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’
The Glory of God is all good scripture and divine knowledge of the Holy spirit that is good for learning. The Glory of God is Spirit and purposes of reasons of grace undeserved was made flesh was crucified died for the sins of angels that angels might continue to reincarnate those that believe in him, his death on the cross, his burrial and his ressurection from the dead. – Adagio 1st the son of the Holy Spirit the reincarnation of Jesus Christ the son of the Virgin Mary ever Virgin and Joseph born of Immaculate conception a miracle of the Holy Spirit. Read the Gospel of John Chapter 3 for the biological and spiritual understanding of being born again.
EDITED BY HORACE HOLLEY
Approved by Bahá’í Committee on Publications, 1923.
BY BRENTANO’S, INC.
BAHÁ’Í PUBLISHING COMMITTEE
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
J.J. LITTLE AND IVES COMPANY, NEW YORK
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INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………. iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND SOURCES …………………………………. vii
PART ONE — THE GLORY OF GOD
(Words of Bahá’u’lláh)
CHAPTER ONE–INTERPRETATION OF HOLY BOOKS ………………………. 1
- From the
Kitáb-i-Íqán: Tablet Study Outline
Name of Tablet in Arabic or Persian:
- The book was originally known as Risaliy-i-Khal, Epistle to the Uncle, and later entitled by Bahá’u’lláh Himself as the Kitáb-i-Íqán.
Translation into English:
- The Book of Certitude. Translated by Shoghi Effendi, reprinted in many editions.
Significance of Name – The original title, Epistle to the Uncle, is simply a literal reference to its recipient. Its later title, Book of Certitude, could be interpreted in many ways, the most obvious probably being that the book was designed to give certitude and assurance to the Báb’s uncle for him to be able to recognize the Manifestation of God and the truth of the Bahá’í cause. It was of course successful, as Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad did become a Bahá’í. The book remains a source of proof and certitude for modern readers, which gives the title contemporary meaning, too.
Tablet was revealed in: Persian, with quotations from the Qur’an in Arabic
Name of Recipient: The Báb’s maternal uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad (Khal-i-Akbar, the Older Uncle, also translatable as The Greater Uncle) who with his brother Hájí Mírzá Hasan-Alí (Khal-i-Asghar, the Younger/Lesser Uncle) was visiting Karbilá.
Reason for Revelation of the Tablet: In _God Passes By_, p. 138, Shoghi Effendi explains that the Íqán “was written in fulfillment of the prophecy of the Báb, Who had specifically stated that the Promised One would complete the text of the unfinished Persian Bayán, and in reply to the questions addressed to Bahá’u’lláh by the as yet unconverted maternal uncle of the Báb, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad…” Thus, the Íqán was revealed for at least two reasons that we know of: First, it fulfilled the Báb’s prophecy about the revelation of the Bayán, thus indirectly proving Bahá’u’lláh’s status as the foretold Manifestation. Second, it was intended to foster certitude in the mind of its recipient and, presumably, in the minds of future readers.
Questions asked that are answered in Tablet:
The Íqán was revealed in response to four specific questions posed by Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad, which can be summarized as follows:
- The Day of Resurrection. Is there to be corporeal resurrection? The world is replete with injustice. How are the just to be requited and the unjust punished?
- The twelfth Imám was born at a certain time and lives on. There are traditions, all supporting the belief. How can this be explained?
- Interpretation of the holy texts. This Cause does not seem to conform to the beliefs held throughout the years. One cannot ignore the literal meaning of the holy texts and scripture. How can this be explained?
- Certain events, according to the traditions that have come down from the Imáms, must occur at the advent of the Qa’im. Some of these are mentioned. But none of these has happened. How can this be explained?” (Balyuzi, _Bahá’u’lláh: King of Glory_, 164-65)
The questions have been preserved, and a translation of them in their entirety can be found at http://bahai-library.org/histories/Íqán.questions.html
Date of Revelation:
- In _God Passes By_ page 138, the Guardian writes that the Íqán was “revealed within the space of two days and two nights, in the closing years of that period (1278 A.H. — 1862 A.D.” The exact date is not known, but extensive research upholds the dating of the Íqán to this year. See, for example, Buck’s _Symbol and Secret_, pages 7-12. There are also several passages in the Íqán itself which indicate the date of its revelation, such as “these holy lights have, for eighteen years, heroically endured the showers of afflictions.” Adding eighteen years to the beginning of the Bahá’í era, AD1844/AH1260, gives AD1862/AH1278.
Place of Revelation:
Role of Amanuensis or Secretary:
- The Íqán was most likely dictated to Mírzá Áqá Jan, as was the custom, and later a copy was made by Abdu’l-Bahá. For more detail see Christopher Buck, _Symbol and Secret_, page 16.
Other Tablets revealed at about the same time:
- According to Taherzadeh, the tablets revealed near the end of Bahá’u’lláh’s stay in Baghdad, i.e. roughly contemporaneous with the Íqán, include Subhána-Rabbiya’l- A’la (“Praise to the Exalted Lord”), Lawh-i-Ghulamu’l-Khuld (“Tablet of the Youth of Paradise”), Hur-i-Ujab (“The Wondrous Maiden”), Az-Bagh-i-Ilahi (“From The Garden of Holiness”), Halih-Halih-Yá-Bishárát (“Hallelujah, Hallelujah, O Glad-Tidings”), Lawh-i-Ayyub (“The Tablet of Job,” also known as Súriy-i-Sabr, “Súrih of Patience”), Lawh-i-Bulbulu’l-Firaq (“Tablet of the Nightingale of Bereavement”), Súratu’lláh (“Súrih of God”), and of course the Tablet of the Holy Mariner.
Style, subject, and genre of the Tablet:I. Tone of Tablet The Íqán seems to contain passages of both the tone of command and authority and of the tone of servitude, meekness and supplication. II. Subject Covered by Tablet 1. Writings dealing with interpretation of the old Scriptures, religious beliefs and doctrines of the past. Religious beliefs and doctrines of the past. 3. Mystical Writings. 5. Tablets dealing with subjects of learning and knowledge, divine, philosophy, mysteries of creation, medicine, alchemy, etc. 6. Tablets exhorting men to education, goodly character and divine virtues. III. Literary Genre of Tablet. 2. Essay or book revealed as a letter to an individual. Voice of Tablet Bahá’u’lláh (the Íqán was revealed before Bahá’u’lláh explicitly announced His station, so the tablet was at least at first glance revealed in the voice of Bahá’u’lláh). Outline Contents of Tablet: The Íqán is too lengthy to outline here; see instead the list of themes, below. Principal themes of the Tablet – The Guardian summarizes the themes of the Íqán as follows, in _God Passes By_ 139, in writing that the Íqán, “setting forth in outline the Grand Redemptive Scheme of God,…proffered to mankind the ‘Choice Sealed Wine,’ whose seal is of ‘musk,’ and broke the ‘seals’ of the ‘Book’ referred to by Daniel, and disclosed the meaning of the ‘words’ destined to remain ‘closed up’ till the ‘time of the end’.” The rest of the Guardian’s summary of the Íqán has been ably outlined by a student as follows:
- “proclaims unequivocally the existence and oneness of a personal God, unknowable, inaccessible, the source of all Revelation, eternal, omniscient, omnipotent and almighty”
- “asserts the relativity of religious truth and the continuity of Divine Revelation”
- “affirms the unity of the Prophets, the universality of their Message, the identity off their fundamental teachings, the sanctity of their scriptures, and the twofold character of their stations”
- “denounces the blindness and perversity of the divines and doctors of every age”
- “cites and elucidates the allegorical passages of the New Testament, the abstruse verses of the Quran, and the cryptic Muhammadan traditions which have bred those age-long misunderstandings, doubts and animosities that have sundered and kept apart the followers of the world’s leading religious systems”
- “enumerates the essential prerequisites for the attainment by every true seeker of the object of his quest”
- “demonstrates the validity, the sublimity and significance of the Báb’s Revelation”
- “acclaims the heroism and detachment of His disciples”
- “foreshadows, and prophesies the world-wide triumph of the Revelation promised to the people of the Bayán”
- “upholds the purity and innocence of the Virgin Mary”
- “glorifies the Imáms of the Faith of Muhammad”
- “celebrates the martyrdom, and lauds the spiritual sovereignty of Imám Husayn”
- “unfolds the meaning of such symbolic terms as ‘Return,’ ‘Resurrection,’ ‘Seal of the Prophets’ and ‘Day of Judgement'”
- “adumbrates and distinguishes between the three stages of Divine Revelation”
- “expatiates, in glowing terms, upon the glories and wonders of the ‘City of God,’ renewed, at fixed intervals, by the dispensation of Providence, for the guidance, the benefit and salvation of all mankind”
- “…by sweeping away the age-long barriers that have so insurmountably separated the great religions of the world, has laid down a broad and unassailable foundation for the complete and permanent reconciliation of their followers.”
Tablet’s relationship to other tablets:
- The Íqán has been described by Bahá’u’lláh in one of His Tablets as the Siyyid-i- Kutub, “the Lord of Books.” In _God Passes By_ Shoghi Effendi characterizes the Íqán in itself and in relation to other works of Bahá’u’lláh as “Foremost among the priceless treasures cast forth from the billowing ocean of Bahá’u’lláh’s Revelation…” (138) He goes on to say ” this Book, setting forth in outline the Grand Redemptive Scheme of God, occupies a position unequalled by any work in the entire range of the Bahá’í literature, except the Kitáb-i-Aqdas…” (139)
Biography or bio note of the recipient of the Tablet:
- The Íqán contains references to many Manifestations of God, their apostles and disciples, the Imáms, and some historical Islamic figures. The primary recipient, of course was Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad. Mentions of and biographies of him can be found in Balyuzi’s _Bahá’u’lláh: King of Glory_ 344, 388, 405; _Eminent Bahá’ís in the Time of Bahá’u’lláh_ 35 (footnote), 121, 217-18, 220-21, 226-27, 229; _The Báb_ 86-87, 107; and in Taherzadeh’s _Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh_ vol.1 153- 59 and elsewhere, passim.
CHAPTER TWO--THE GREAT MESSAGE ...................................... 67
Preface to the Tablet of the Shah of Persia http://bahai-library.com/wilmette_lawh_sultan_outline
Tablet to the Sultan [Nasiri’d-Din Shah]:
Tablet study outline
Lawh-i-Sultán, (Tablet to the King of Persia, to AQA1 66-96; Alw-Braz 145-201; Leiden Ms Or 4970 item 6 or 7; Rosen2 195-216 (with numerous glosses); Lawh-i-Mubarak-i-Sultán-i-Iran (with notes by Azízulláh Sulaymani), 132 BE, and repr. India, 158 pages. Another edition not sighted publ. Egypt 1940. According to a letter from Mírzá Sa’id Khán to Mírzá Husayn Khán, the original of this Tablet was sent to the latter, so it may be in Ottoman archives. Arabic and Persian, long. Sections trans. PB 57-60; PDC 39-41, 44, 72; self-citations in ESW 11, 39. Full text trans. by Browne in Traveller’s Narrative, 112ff and in the appendix beginning 390. The appendix translates the portions of the tablet which are not cited by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in the version of TN which Browne had. But in the Persian edition of TN ‘Abdu’l-Bahá cites the whole tablet (?). Browne indicates variant readings, but the Sulaymani edition has significant phrases missing in TN. Rosen2 192 also gives Bahá’u’lláh’s instructions to Badí’, and describes the Mss (part of Ms247) in St Petersburg. These instructions and the excordium not cited in TN are produced in Browne’s edition of TN 390f, with the Persian of the instructions. Browne’s trans. of the instructions reprinted in Balyuzi, Bahá’u’lláh King of Glory 299 and TahRB3 176. Part of the Arabic exordium also trans. in ESW 11, 39, and PB 57f, with only minor differences in translation. Full translation, comprised of Browne’s and the Guardian’s combined, available online at http://bahai-library.com/provisionals. Mentioned GPB 170, 171-2; discussed in Browne, The Bábís of Persia, their Literature and Doctrines, JRAS XXI 958-60; TahRB2 337-40, 346-57, TahRB3 109, 174- 203.
Name of Tablet in Arabic or Persian:
Lawh-i-Sultán, or Lawh-i-Mubarak-i-Sultán-i-Iran
Translation into English:
Tablet of the Sultán, or Tablet to the Blessed King of Iran. Parts of this Tablet have been authoritatively translated by the Guardian in _Promised Day is Come_ 39-41, 44, 72. See also _Proclamation of Bahá’u’lláh_ 57-60. Bahá’u’lláh also cited Himself in what came to be authoritatively translated, the _Epistle to the Son of the Wolf_, 11 and 39. E.G. Browne translated the full text in the original edition of _Traveller’s Narrative_, 112ff. and in the appendix beginning 390. Sen McGlinn has compiled the Guardians’ text and Browne’s translation to provide a full text, available online at http://bahai-library.com/provisionals/tablet.to.shah.html.
Significance of Name:
Named after the recipient, Nasiri’d-Din Sháh, the Sultán of Iran
Tablet was revealed in:
Arabic and Persian
Name of Recipient:
Reason for Revelation of the Tablet:
Proclamation of the revelation; chastisement of the Sháh.
Date of Revelation:
Though not delivered until early-mid 1869 (see _A Basic Bahá’í Chronology_, 89), the Tablet was revealed shortly before leaving Adrianople, i.e. late 1867-mid 1868 (see ibid., 78).
Place of Revelation:
Revealed in Adrianople, delivered from Akká.
As a note of interest, it is because of the epistles to the Rulers that the house from which they were issued was titled “the house of Amru’lláh,” the house of “God’s command.”
Style, subject, and genre of the Tablet: [?]Style: Tablet with the tone of authority
Tablets concerning matters of government and world order, and those addressed to the kings; Tablets exhorting men to education, goodly character and divine virtues; Tablets dealing with social teachings.
Outline Contents of Tablet
“…Bahá’u’lláh explains His Station as the One Who has “the knowledge of all that hath been.” He asks the Sháh to be just in his treatment of his citizens, especially the Bahá’ís, and to beware of those who claim to love him for their own benefit. He explains that if the Sháh saw clearly he would not value his earthly sovereignty but rather abandon it for nearness to God.
In the untranslated portion of the Tablet, Bahá’u’lláh explains that distinction for man lies in his deeds of righteousness, not in the pomp and grandeur of this world. He also offers to meet with the divines and argue His Cause if given the opportunity. He points out the insincerity of the clergy and explains the courage of the Báb’i martyrs. Throwing away ones life is not a sane choice but most of the martyrs were all distinguished and virtuous. The choice of martyrdom could only have been because of the love for God burning in their breasts. In spite of this ardor, Bahá’u’lláh assures the Sháh that He has counseled them to abandon strife and the use of the sword in defending their Faith. He relates His suffering and the suffering of the Bahá’ís and prophesies the ultimate victory of His Faith…”
Principal Themes of the Tablet:
Some of the themes, in no particular order, are: the Proclamation of the Revelation; the proper role and behavior of leaders; the challenge to the Sháh and all of humanity to accept the message; proofs of His mission; the beginning of the end of the power of the divines; the renunciation of violence, to be replaced by the “sword of wisdom and utterance”; victory is won by good deeds and a pure life; Bahá’u’lláh’s own sufferings and His willingness to sacrifice everything He has for His Cause; proclaiming the firm faith of His followers.
Tablet’s relationship to any other tablets:
Themes of this Tablet are, by and large, similar to those in the other Tablets to other monarchs and rulers, most of which were also revealed around the same period.
(1) Quotes Persian Hidden Words numbers 24, 25, 28 & 30 and explains to whom they apply.
(2) Part of this Tablet is quoted in Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (the part in which He recounts His experience with the Holy Spirit).
A brief discussion of the Tablet and the fate of its deliverer, Badí’, can be found in _God Passes By_, 199. A more detailed history is in _Bahá’u’lláh: King of Glory_, 293-310. The most comprehensive treatment is in Taherzadeh’s _Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh_ vol. 3, 176-192.
CHAPTER THREE--THE NEW AGE ......................................... 137
- From the
CHAPTER FOUR--THE DEGREES OF DEVOTION .............................. 156
CHAPTER FIVE--THE INNER SIGNIFICANCES .............................. 189
CHAPTER SIX–THE COVENANT AND TESTAMENT OF BAHA’U’LLAH …………. 255
PART TWO — THE COVENANT OF GOD
(Words of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’)
CHAPTER SEVEN–THE CAUSE OF GOD ……………………………… 265
CHAPTER EIGHT–THE LOOM OF REALITY …………………………… 434
CHAPTER NINE--THE DIVINE CIVILIZATION .............................. 505
GLOSSARY ........................................................... 557 [not included]
INDEX …………………………………………………….. 559 [not included]
For this digital version, the following terms were changed from an outdated form to one reflecting typical transliterations found in modern Bahá’í works:
- Akdas = Aqdas
- Beha = Bahá
- Bahá-El-Abhá! = Bahá’u’l-Abhá
- Beyan = Bayán
- El-Beyan = the Bayán
- El-Masjid-El-Aska = the Masjíd
- al-‘Aqsá = the Further Mosque in Jerusalem
- Hosein = Husayn
- Irak = ‘Iráq
- Ishrakat = ‘Ishraqát
- Kitáb’l’Akdas or Kitáb El Akdas or KITAB-EL-Aqdas = Kitáb-i-Aqdas
- Kitáb-el-Ah’d = Kitáb-i-´Ahd
- Kitáb-el-Ighan = Kitáb-i-Íqán
- Koran = Qur’án
- Kurrat-el-Ayn = Qurratu’l-Ayn
- Muhammad = Muhammad
- Ra’is = Súriy-i-Ra’ís
- Rizwan = Ridván
- Sadrat-El-Muntaha = Sadratu’l-Muntahá
- Tajalliat = Tajallíyát
- Teheran = Tihrán
Since the occasion when mention of the Bahá’í Cause was first made in this country – at the Congress of Religions held in the Columbian Exposition in 1893 – interest in the Bahá’í principles and teachings has steadily increased. Sufficient foundation had been laid by 1912, when ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’ came to America, to prepare for His message a cordial, sympathetic and reverent reception in the liberal synagogues, churches, new thought centers, universities and societies organized for scientific, ethical, economic and political progress in numerous cities.
The succeeding years – so fateful for the destiny of civilization, so disturbing to every social institution and so challenging to the noblest and most disinterested faculties of soul, mind and heart – have served to deepen and extend that preliminary interest and build upon that foundation a permanent spiritual structure in many lives. The years since 1912, in fact, have thrown an ever-clearer light upon the need, in the world’s consciousness, for precisely those principles and teachings so perfectly embodied in ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’ and so definitely associated with His life and work.
To one who has acquainted himself with the Bahá’í writings, evidences of the penetration of their fundamental influence are revealed in increasing measure from day to day and throughout the world. The leaders of religion, science and practical affairs are beginning to manifest an attitude of universality and a spirit of unity which seems a direct reflection of the light ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’ cast upon the manifold problems of living and the fundamental problem of life. Day by day, the realization deepens in all conscious men and women that, in this age, new forces are seeking expression – forces so mighty that the difference between understanding and misunderstanding is the immediate crisis between the alternatives of a new, worldwide and spiritualized civilization and a further, even more disastrous undoing of the things that are.
It is upon the plane of understanding that the power of the
Bahá’í writings operates, in that are of being which lies beyond the personal desire, the personal thought, the personal will. Their operation is to restore in the individual, whatever his race, class, creed, profession or temperament, that eternal vision of the oneness of God whose evolving expression is directly the development of the soul, and indirectly the harmonious organization of mankind. Compared to other writings of this age, the Bahá’í Scriptures are as light compared to the reflection of light from surfaces more or less luminous or opaque. This essential quality of illumination, as distinct from the subject illuminated, and of vision, as distinct from the subject visioned, reveals anew the very sources of man’s spiritual being, and discloses, also, the predominant forces working to mold the character of the new day.
The purpose of the book is to bring together, in convenient form and helpful arrangement, that portion of the Bahá’í writings already available in various books, magazines and also manuscript translation, selecting from them sufficient material to supply the reader and student a larger perspective upon these principles and teachings than any single work has yet accomplished in the English language. While it is inevitable that most, if not all the Bahá’í writings will one day undergo re-translation, and be presented in a worthier and more permanent form than is possible at the present time, nevertheless the need of a suitable compilation now urgently exists, and it is hoped that the present work will at least serve as one link in the chain of effort whereby the Bahá’í writings are carried from their source in the “most great prison” of ‘Akká to the mind and heart of the self-imprisoned race.
In this country at least, the Bahá’í message of the unity of religions, the reconciliation of science and religion, and the promulgation of Universal Peace, is established upon a recognition of the fact that in ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’, a new spirit of universality had manifested its vital, penetrative essence. Not so well understood is the fact that the root and source of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s utterances, the foundation of His being, attested on every possible occasion by Him, was entire devotion to the utterances and the being of His father, Bahá’u’lláh. This inner and spiritual relationship, likened by Bahá’u’lláh to that of the root and the “greatest branch” or trunk of a tree, is brought out in the present volume through the method adopted to organize its contents, not only by chapters
but also by parts or “books”; the first book containing the words of Bahá’u’lláh – the Bahá’í Scriptures in essence – the second book containing the words of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’ – the authoritative interpretation of the Bahá’í Scriptures and their direct application to the fundamental problems of the age. By this method the utterances of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’ are established in clearest relationship to their source, and consequently their purpose; moreover the utterances of Bahá’u’lláh are established in relationship to all the Scriptures which have gone before: whose unfoldment, whose reinforcement they are.
While for the purpose of the student acquainting himself with the Bahá’í writings for the first time, an outline at least of the historical conditions under which they were successively revealed would seem highly desirable, even essential, to the fullest understanding of their significance and most intimate sympathy for their application, nevertheless it will be found that this need is met in the process of reading the Bahá’í message itself. Chapter Seven contains an address by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’ which had for its theme the history of the Bahá’í Cause; and numerous references to that history will also be found in other passages. Moreover, inspiring as the actual record of those events are, the principal matter is not to realize the Bahá’í Scriptures as a detail in history so much as a source of light whereby history itself is illumined.
“How wonderful that the Well Beloved is manifest as the sun, while strangers are in search of vanities and wealth! Yea, He is concealed by the intensity of manifestation, and He is hidden by the ardor of emanation!”
New York City
February 12, 1923
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND SOURCES
The present compilation has not been made with any thought of establishing a text, nor of even securing a polished and adequate English translation. From the literary point of view, the text embodied in this volume must be considered as a king in rags, since the Arabic and Persian originals are declared by all who have had access to them to be of the most exalted beauty and the most moving force.
On that sea, the editor has no power to sail. His effort has been entirely confined to the intention of re-creating, as fully as possible through the use of available texts, some sense of that organic unity from which all the Bahá’í writings came, and to place in the student’s hands a more fully organized Bahá’í work than has yet been published. In its sequence alone does the present volume contain the results of any particular study and accumulated labor.
For the most part, the contents have been taken from the publications of the Bahá’í Publishing Society, to the efforts of which we are indebted to the spread of these writings in America. As yet, few original Bahá’í writings have reached the public through any other channel, notable exceptions to which are Abbas Effendi, His Life and Teachings by Myron Phelps, published by G. P. Putnam’s Sons, and A Traveller’s Narrative, Written to Illustrate the Episode of the Báb translated by Edward G. Browne, and published with the Persian original by the University Press, Cambridge, England. It is in this incomparable translation, in fact, that the English reader draws most closely to the spirit and power of the original utterance. The Tablet to the Sháh, contained in Chapter Two of the present compilation, shows on comparison with Professor Browne’s translation to have been based in part at least upon his exquisite rendering.
Tablets contained in Bahá’í Scriptures hitherto unpublished (so far at least as the editor is aware) are found in Chapters Two, Five and Eight, and for this material acknowledgment is made
to the kindness of many friends who contributed manuscripts, especially Mrs. I.D. Brittingham, Mary Hanford Ford, A.W. Randall, Miss Martha Root and Miss Juliet Thompson.
For the omission of many fundamental teachings (or rather interpretations) given by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’ to American audiences during 1912, explanation might well be called for were it not for the fact that the complete text of those addresses has been published since this compilation came into being.
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